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                    朋友之間“臭味相投”科學依據來了(下)

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                    To cast light on whether friendship causes similarity of scent, or similarity of scent causes friendship, Dr Ravreby, Dr Snitz and Dr Sobel investigated whether e-nose measurements could predict positive interactions between strangers -- the sort of “clicking” that is often the basis of a new friendships.

                    為了弄清楚是友誼導致氣味相似,還是氣味相似導致友誼,Ravreby博士、Snitz博士和Sobel博士研究了電子鼻測量是否可以預測陌生人之間的積極互動--這種“點擊”通常是新友誼的基礎。

                    To this end they gathered another 17 volunteers, gave them t-shirts to wear to collect their body odours, ran those odours past the e-nose, and then asked the participants to play a game.

                    為此,他們召集了另外17名志愿者,給他們穿上收集體味的t恤,讓這些體味通過電子鼻,然后讓參與者玩一個游戲。

                    That game involved silently mirroring another individual’s hand movements.

                    這個游戲包括默默地模仿另一個人的手部動作。

                    Participants were paired up at random and their reactions recorded.

                    參與者被隨機配對,并記錄他們的反應。

                    After each interaction, they demonstrated how close they felt to their fellow gamer by overlapping two circles (one representing themselves, the other their partner) on a screen.

                    每次互動后,他們通過在屏幕上重疊兩個圓圈(一個代表他們自己,另一個代表他們的伙伴)來展示他們與其他游戲玩家的親密度。

                    The more similar the two electronic smell signatures were, the greater the overlap.

                    兩個電子氣味特征越相似,重疊就越大。

                    Participants also rated the quality of their interaction in the game along 12 subjective dimensions of feelings that define friendship.

                    參與者還根據定義友誼的12個主觀感受維度,對他們在游戲中的互動質量進行了評級。

                    Similar odours corresponded to positive ratings for nine of these dimensions.

                    類似的氣味對應著其中九個維度的正面評分。

                    Intriguingly, however, two participants smelling alike did not mean they were any more accurate at the mirroring game than others, as measured by a hidden camera.

                    然而,有趣的是,通過隱藏攝像頭的數據,兩名氣味相似的參與者并不意味著他們在鏡像游戲中比其他人更準確。

                    Why scent might play a role in forming friendships remains obscure.

                    為什么氣味可能會在建立友誼中發揮作用,目前還不清楚。

                    Other qualities correlated with being friends, including age, appearance, education, religion and race, are either immediately obvious or rapidly become so.

                    與成為朋友相關的其他品質,包括年齡、外貌、教育、宗教和種族,要么馬上就會明顯,要么很快就會變得明顯。

                    But while some individuals have strong and noticeable body odour, many -- at least since the use of soap has become widespread -- do not.

                    但是,雖然有些人有強烈而明顯的體味,但許多人--至少自從肥皂的使用變得普遍以來--沒有。

                    It is present.

                    它是存在的。

                    But it is subliminal.

                    但這是潛意識的。

                    Dr Ravreby speculates that there may be “an evolutionary advantage in having friends that are genetically similar to us”.

                    Ravreby博士推測,“擁有與我們基因相似的朋友可能是一種進化優勢”。

                    Body odour is known to be linked with genetic make-up (particularly with the genes underlying part of the immune system called the major histocompatibility complex).

                    眾所周知,體味與遺傳構成有關(特別是與免疫系統中被稱為主要組織相容性復合體的潛在基因)。

                    Smelling others may thus allow subconscious inferences about genetic similarity to be drawn.

                    因此,通過聞別人的氣味可以得出關于基因相似性的潛意識推斷。

                    That still, however, does not quite answer the question.

                    不過,這仍然沒有完全回答這個問題。

                    Dr Ravreby speculates that odour-matching of this sort may be an extended form of kin selection, which spreads an individual’s genes collaterally, by helping the reproduction of relatives who are likely to share them.

                    Ravreby博士推測,這種氣味匹配可能是親緣選擇的一種延伸形式,它通過幫助可能共享基因的親緣去繁殖,來間接傳播個體的基因。

                    If those who smell similar are kin enough for this to apply, their children will be as well.

                    如果那些氣味相似的人有足夠的親緣關系,他們的孩子也是這樣。

                    “So by helping friends,” Dr Ravreby offers, “we help spread our own genes.”

                    “因此,通過幫助朋友,”Ravreby博士說,“我們幫忙傳播我們自己的基因?!?/p>

                    重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
                    kin [kin]

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                    n. 家族,親屬
                    adj. 親屬關系的,同類的

                    聯想記憶
                    subliminal [sʌb'liminəl]

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                    adj. 下意識的,潛意識的

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                    genetically [dʒe'netikəli]

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                    adv. 遺傳(基因)方面

                     
                    define [di'fain]

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                    v. 定義,解釋,限定,規定

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                    obvious ['ɔbviəs]

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                    adj. 明顯的,顯然的

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                    measured ['meʒəd]

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                    adj. 量過的,慎重的,基于標準的,有韻律的 動詞me

                     
                    obscure [əb'skjuə]

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                    adj. 微暗的,難解的,不著名的,[語音學]輕音的

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                    underlying [.ʌndə'laiiŋ]

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                    adj. 在下面的,基本的,隱含的

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                    complex ['kɔmpleks]

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                    adj. 復雜的,復合的,合成的
                    n. 復合體

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                    interaction [.intə'rækʃən]

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                    n. 相互作用,相互影響,互動交流

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