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                    2021年英語專業八級真題聽力 Mini-lecture(2)

                    來源:可可英語 編輯:Kelly ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
                      


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                    And how do they do it? Let me tell you.

                    他們是怎么做到的呢? 讓我來告訴你。

                    Institutions would add new units that focus on generating external grants and bringing new technology to market.

                    大學機構將增加新的部門,新部門尋求外部資助和將新技術推向市場。

                    They would build conference centers and create for-profit subsidiaries.

                    他們將建立會議中心和營利性子公司。

                    All these are done to generate more revenue for institutions.

                    所有這些都是為了給大學機構帶來更多的收入。

                    What are the implications of this?

                    這意味著什么?

                    Well, the implications are that academic research is increasingly focused on marketable knowledge, entrepreneurial priorities are taking precedence, services are being outsourced, and students are carrying an increasing burden to pay higher tuition fees for their education.

                    這意味著學術研究越來越關注有市場價值的知識,創業優先級越來越高,服務被外包,學生為他們的教育支付更高的學費的負擔越來越重。

                    Then how do university administrators view this trend?

                    那么高校管理者如何看待這一趨勢呢?

                    That is, the marketplace is showing stronger impact on how institutions are run.

                    也就是說,市場對大學機構運行方式的影響越來越大。

                    In fact, university administrators see little option except to respond to the marketplace.

                    事實上,除了對市場做出反應外,大學管理者幾乎沒有別的選擇。

                    The reason is, if their institution does not react effectively, it will not have the necessary resources to offer high-quality and diverse academic programs.

                    原因是,如果他們的機構不能有效地做出反應,它就沒有必要的資源來提供高質量和多樣化的學術項目。

                    Institutions unable to compete may face hard circumstances because government support continues to fall, students become better-informed consumers, and advances in technology also widen the number and reach of competitors.

                    無法參與競爭的大學機構可能會面臨艱難的環境,因為政府支持繼續減少,學生成為更知情的消費者,而技術的進步也擴大了競爭對手的數量和范圍。

                    In turn, the ability to compete-for students, resources, faculty and prestige-becomes a driving strategic force.

                    反過來,競爭——學生、資源、師資和聲望的能力——成為一種推動戰略力量。

                    At its extreme, competition can overtake more traditional academic values.

                    在極端情況下,競爭可能會取代傳統的學術價值。

                    However, the downside of pursuing market goals without appropriately balancing them against the public good is....

                    然而,追求市場目標而不適當地平衡它們與公共利益的缺點是....

                    is that institutions will no longer be able to fulfill their social responsibility to produce well-educated citizens and face the threat of losing their privileged place in society as they resemble more closely other market-driven organizations.

                    大學機構將不再能夠履行其社會責任,培養受過良好教育的公民,并面臨失去社會特權地位的威脅,因為它們更接近于其他市場驅動的組織。

                    Now let's move on to the second challenge facing U.S. higher education.

                    現在讓我們談談美國高等教育面臨的第二個挑戰。

                    That is the tension between competition and equality in admissions decisions.

                    這就是院校競爭和錄取決定平等之間的緊張關系。

                    Since World War II, U.S. higher education has been engaged in a process of “massification”, that is, expanding to serve students from all walks of life.

                    第二次世界大戰以來,美國高等教育經歷了一個“大眾化”的過程,即向各行各業的學生擴展。

                    Motivating this effort is a widespread belief in the power of education to create social and economic mobility and a belief in the morality and social value of making higher education accessible to everyone.

                    推動這一成果的原因是,人們普遍認為教育具有創造社會和推動經濟流動的力量,人們認為道德和社會價值是讓每個人都能接受高等教育。

                    Research data bear out public perceptions:

                    研究數據證實了公眾的看法:

                    When young people from low income backgrounds complete a bachelor's degree, their income and employment characteristics after graduation are equivalent to their peers from more affluent backgrounds.

                    當來自低收入家庭的年輕人完成學士學位時,他們畢業后的收入和就業特征與來自富裕家庭的同齡人相當。

                    So education can truly be “the great equalizer”。

                    因此,教育可以真正成為“偉大的均衡器”。

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                    respond [ris'pɔnd]

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                    v. 回答,答復,反應,反響,響應
                    n.

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                    trend [trend]

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                    n. 趨勢,傾向,方位
                    vi. 傾向,轉向

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                    diverse [dai'və:s]

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                    adj. 不同的,多種多樣的

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                    traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

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                    adj. 傳統的

                     
                    except [ik'sept]

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                    vt. 除,除外
                    prep. & conj.

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                    characteristics [,kærəktə'ristiks]

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                    n. 特性,特征;特質;特色(characteristi

                     
                    challenge ['tʃælindʒ]

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                    n. 挑戰
                    v. 向 ... 挑戰

                     
                    option ['ɔpʃən]

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                    n. 選擇權,可選物,優先購買權
                    v. 給予選

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                    competition [kɔmpi'tiʃən]

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                    n. 比賽,競爭,競賽

                     
                    conference ['kɔnfərəns]

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                    n. 會議,會談,討論會,協商會

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